Friday , July 30 2021

Space: how far have we gone – and where do we go? | Science



Who has traveled to space?

Space aviation is now an incredible industry. Yuri Gagarin, who was overlapped around the world on 12 April 1961, more than half a century ago, when Britain was still a national power and people still used half a penis to buy their fish and; chips.

Since then, more than 550 people have dropped themselves in the deep deep river, although not everyone all agrees how far you need to go until you reach the space, so there is no figure and accepted internationally. Only 10 of those who have been women, are largely due to sexic policies by the Nasa and Russian Russian space agency.

Where have we been in space?

The Soviet Union took on the first walks, but US president John F Kennedy announced that America would be giving a man on the moon by the end of the 1960s focusing the space race in square at the aim that. Touch Apollo 11 on our gray gray neighbor on July 20, 1969.

A total of 12 men walked on the moon over the next few years, all Americans, but no-one had been there since 1972. Indeed, no-one has left the outskirts of the Earth since then.

We imagine astronaut that is free of charge or sounds in moon crackers, but most of those who are lucky rather have hang them around in the low Earth orbit – between 99 and a few hundred high miles. That's where the wide variety of letters of communication and navigation live, accelerating thousands of miles per hour to avoid plumbing back to the ground.

What do we do there?

Although we did not go back into a deep space, people have begun to live and work outside the Earth's atmosphere, often carry out experiments alone to determine the effects of a lack of pressure, or microgeneration, on the human body.

Space Box 1

By 1986, the Soviet Union launched the Mir space station. When it came down to the Earth (interestingly unoccupied) and its burning, our current space launch, the International Space Station (ISS) was launched. Since 2000, people have been living in space constantly. There are currently three ups, speeding around the world once every 90 minutes.

What happens to the body in space?

Much, and until we really understand how people lack weight we will not be able to send the pioneers of this period further to places like Mars or asteroids that disappear. Scott Kelly, a former US and Nasa long-time astronaut pilot, spent a bouncing year around the ISS's limited capsules in an attempt to understand the long-term impact of aviation. He does not hold the record for the most extended attack to the space – Gennady Padalka claims he spent two and a half years of his life there on several trips – but the Kelly experiment had a natural advantage over others: she has twin.

When comparing their bodies throughout, scientists were able to assess how bones, muscles and other parts of the body declined in space. There is a gym on the ISS even where astronauts can keep their muscles – they did not need to be offered any longer – from slowing off. But they need to wear harnesses to keep moving from the foot mill. A big issue is that eye problems are developing, but Kelly has found that her body has improved rapidly after returning. He appeared to be in a similar shape – good news for future deep space trips.

Which countries it has human space programs?

Only three countries, China, Russia and the US have human space programs as it is still prohibitively expensive. However, they have provided passenger lifts where there are 40 countries, including a member of the Saudi royal family and even paying customers, such as South Africa soldier, Mark Shuttleworth, aged 28.

How much does it cost to send?

Astronomical. The ISS is the most expensive machine ever built with a price tag at around $ 150 billion (£ 115 billion). Nasa space shuttle program, which began in the early 1970's by promising safe and affordable access to space, hoping to cost just a few tens of dollars for each launch. But as the shuttle was thrown into the bay yard in 2011, the agency estimated the total cost at $ 209bn – almost $ 1.6 billion on each flight.

Following the big fight over the shuttle, which looked fantastic but also restricted space space to Earth's orbit as well as costing a fortune, the US took a side seat launching. Most astronauts are now being sent by the Russian space agency, which sells round trips rides on its Soyuz spacecraft for between $ 21m and $ 82m.

Is human space fly worth the cost?

Anyone involved in space travel will be surprised at this, but it's a good question, and space agencies often do not convey their achievements enough. Almost all sectors of human progress have benefited from sending people into space. It was only the act of trying the sport to force scientists to devise new systems. The Apollo instruction computer was a precursor to the micro-computer, which has now been found in every smartphone. Clothing are more resistant to fire due to research on space fires. The quality of astronomers' quality monitoring has led to revolutionary systems for helping patients on Earth. Diseases behave and develop differently in microscopy, which help scientists find a healing.

Others say that paying for a human space flight puts money to the economy, arguing that companies extinguishing space research and growing commercial space industry produce seven to 14 times the cost of trips. And Nasa, the most significant global player, does not spend almost as much as it would be. Approximately $ 19bn is spent by the US government on its budget, about half a hundred of all federal spending. During the early Apollo program, that was between 4% and 5%.

How strong is space cooperation between countries?

The first space race was part of feeding the cold war in the chest, but since then exploring human places has been more for countries working together than against each other. The ISS is a huge collaboration between five space agencies (Nasa, Roscosmos, Jaxa Japan, ESA European European agency and Canadian Space Agency) and was convened over a 13 year period of 1998, adding capsules such as Lego slowly .

Space box 2

This is a big exception to China, who has gone alone with space ambitions, never sends an ISS vessel. In 2006, Beijing tested against US imaging satellites in what it seems to be an attempt to blind or damage, and later, US lawmakers banned cooperation between Nasa and China's state agency.

However, it is certain that the future of any effective human flight will cooperate rather than antagonist. Since 2011, national area agencies in 14 countries have tried to co-ordinate their dreams into one vision. The latest scheme, announced in January this year, said they had agreed to "expand human presence to the solar system, with Mars area as a common driving goal".

Are we off to the red planet? Hurrad!

Do not start scraping yet again. To reach Mars, most people in the community fly to designers feel that we need to go back to the moon first. "This is the only logical step," said Ian Crawford, a professor of planetary science and astrobiology at Birkbeck, University of London. "I'm all in favor of sending people to March, but the technology, competence, experience – I think it's still out of reach".

The moon has many advantages. It is only three days away, rather than a trip around Mars for several months, and has been removed as a location for a similar and similar to Antarctica station. From a celestial lab, scientists could study the effect of exposure of radiation and lack of pressure on the body in a distant distance of Earth, but still in deep space, when preparing for trips further afield.

So i 'm moon then?

Well. Not quite either. The Global Expand Map suggests the construction of a first space station as an orbitol center to send astronau back and forth to the moon. This will look like the ISS except, instead of rushing around the Earth, it will fall on the moon.

Will we ever arrive at Mars?

It's a sport sport and it would be wise to expect serious delays. "Determine a combination of what people would like to do and the reality of time and budgets," said Henry Hertzfeld, director of the Space Policy Institute at the University of Washington Washington, Washington DC, and a former policy analyst. in Nasa. "The idea of ​​putting people on Mars has been around for a long time. If you're reading the policies, it's obviously a long-term vision without a date. But it's like we do not hold the technology to keep people for a long time in deep space. "

Who are the new competitors in a human plane?

The USA and Russia have been giving new players the opportunity. In 2003, China came to the third country to give someone into an orbit and India intends to follow it in 2022. But surely the changing effect in the sector is coming of private space.

In what is combined with the "billionaire space race", Elon Musk, founder of electric cars Telsa, Chief Executive of Amazon Jeff Bezos and manager of Virgin Richard Branson all want to send private citizens into space. Their companies, SpaceX, Blue Origin and Virgin Galactic, have set on making people travel cheaper.

They join a handful of commercial space airlines that already work as contractors for national space agencies. The Boeing and Lockheed Martin Aerospace industry holders send heavy space launchers, but that costs at least $ 350m per launch – several times more expensive than the new $ 90m HeavyX Falcon system.

SpaceX has a value of $ 10 billion worth of launches already ordered and it costs costs through reusable spacecraft, where even the rocket raises their own land back on the ground and can be reused for reused.

And while it looks increasingly likely that the ISS will be canceled in the next decade, a number of private enterprises are considering either taking over or rebuilding their own space stations.

What's next?

As government agencies prioritize the moon, others look straight on Mars. Musk has said that his life goal is to create a prosperous Mars colony as a failure to humankind in case of a catastrophic event on Earth, such as the artificial intelligence of the Nuclear War or Terminator. For this, SpaceX develops the Falcón Rocet (BFR), which claims to send crew trips to the red planet by mid 2020.

Musk says that the BFR is partially inspired by the Tintin rocket and the most will have to make it up to 40 floors high and can ferry as many as 100 passengers per trip, depending on the amount of luggage they want to put in custody.

As well as a healthy satellite launch business, SpaceX raises money by selling tickets on the BFR for a trip, some would say comfortably, around the moon. Yusaku Maezawa, a Japanese fashion billionaire and an art collector, funds such a mission for 2023 and says he is going to invite artists with him for the week trip to re-engage with the public the wonder of our universe.

Further reading

The guide to the stalls to life on Earth, Chris Hadfield

With and back, Sally Ride

The Right Stuff, Tom Wolfe

And Martian, Andy Weir

Dietness: A year in space, a lifetime of discovery, Scott Kelly


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