For a long time there are anecdotal reports that the eyes Mona LisaThe most famous painting by the renaissance artist Leonardo da Vinci – sometimes seems to follow the audience when they move on. Because of this, the phenomenon is even called the "Mona Lisa" effect. But a new study is published in the magazine i-Perception found that she really "looks" at the right side of her audience.
"There is no doubt about the existence of the Mona Lisa effect," the authors wrote. "This just does not happen with. T Mona Lisa itself.
The research has grown from ongoing research at the University of Bielefeld in Germany on human communication with robots and avatars. A focused look is key in the development of gaming avatars or virtual agents, for example. One way an avatar / agent may point out maybe by directing the player / user to the tasks relevant to the task.
Co-author Sebastian Lot watched Mona Lisa's effect often in his studies of robots and avatars, and says that the effect is "indisputable and obvious." It is also extremely reliable. "It's quite interesting that we will not have to stand straight in front of the image to have the impression that they can be seen," he said. "This impression arises if we stand on the left or right and at different distances from the image."
Since the 1960s, perceptual psychologists know that we feel very well when someone is looking at us, according to co-author Gernot Horstman, whose experience in glasses and mind. "This illustrates a strong desire to watch and be a strange point of focus – to be relevant to anyone, even if you do not know a person at all," he said. This includes an awesome sensation of the observation of the objects of pictures or photos that usually occur when the subject looks directly in front of the image, at an angle from 0 to 5 degrees.
Although several studies have been conducted that claim that this is happening with Mona Lisa (aka La Gioconda), the authors argue that these studies failed to provide convincing evidence of this phenomenon. So they decided to test it for themselves. Since the direct measurement of the actual direction of this view is not realistic, Horstman and Lough developed their own experiment to measure the perceived line of sight.
This was a small study of 24 subjects. Everybody was asked to look at the high resolution of the rest Mona Lisa on a computer monitor, with a complex ruler and a screen for tracking the viewing distance. Sub-signals signaled where they are perceived Mona LisaN glance meets the ruler. The researchers selected 15 sections of the famous portrait, starting with Mona LisaA full head to her eyes and nose, and they showed the objects of each image three times in any order. They also changed the range of the ruler from the monitor to the middle of the sessions.
Based on more than 2000 individual assessments, they did not find any evidence of the Mona Lisa effect with Leonardo's masterpiece. We showed it Mona Lisa looks at her left side [the viewer’s right] from about 35.5 cm inside the picturesque space, and 14.4 degrees to the right side of the viewer in real space, – the authors wrote. Mona Lisa does not fulfill the preconditions of the Mona Lisa effect. She does not look at the viewer.
This is not the first time that scientists intrigued how Mona Lisa affects human perception. Even in 2015, scholars from the University of Sheffield Hallam in the UK published a document in Russia Vision Research announcing that they have decided on a secret Mona Lisasurprisingly mysterious "now you see him, now you do not" smile. This is an optical illusion, which is said to have been deliberately used by Leonardo sfumato ("M" or "Pale") a way of coloring and shading around your mouth.
If the viewers focus in the eyes of the subject from a distance (or when blurred in digital form), you can see a slight smile. But this smile disappears at close distances or if the viewer focuses on the mouth. Sheffield's team found the same effect in the previous picture of the master of the Renaissance, La Bella Principessa.
"Given the skill of Leonardo in technology and its further use in Russia Mona Lisa, it is possible that the ambiguity of the effect was intentional, – said psychologist and co-author Alessandro Sorantzo. Telegraph at that time – all the more so that one of the maxim of the artist was that portraits should reflect the "inner vanity of reason."
I assume that we can add an early perceptual scholar to the great achievements of Leonardo.
DOI: i-Perception, 2019. 10.1177 / 2041669518821702 (About DOIs).