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Monitoring of mosquitoes in Madagascar opens a new perspective on the transmission of malaria



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The Ministry of Health Madagascar has reported thousands of malaria cases in recent months. In March, more than 600 cases of malaria were reported weekly and at least 2000 cases were reported in less than a month. As a result, efforts have been initiated to stop the flash.

Now a group of researchers at the Case Western Reserve University Medical University has found new data on the transmission of malaria in Madagascar. They described the real use of a cost-effective mosquito surveillance strategy that uses inexpensive traps and a new tool that can check mosquitoes for their species, the presence of malaria parasites and what it feeds on.

The Madagascar 2018 National Malaria Strategic Plan (NSP) shows strategies for the early elimination of malaria, which include detailed targets for mosquito control. Researchers aim to strengthen prevention of malaria by monitoring mosquitoes. Consequently, they conducted a study published in PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases in remote villages in Madagascar.

Results of mosquito monitoring

They found that female mosquitoes of the Anopheles species have a more diverse diet than before. The results can pave the way for a better understanding of how the disease is transmitted to help formulate new strategies for malaria prevention.

Anopheles mosquitoes. Image: Kletr / Shutterstock

Anopheles mosquitoes. Image: Kletr / Shutterstock

The researchers used a modified bar screen trap called Quadrant Enabled Screen Trap (QUEST) with a recently developed multiplex test to detect BLOODdmeal for regional transmission (BLOODART). During the study, the researchers seized 1252 mosquitoes Anopheles. All mosquitoes have passed the BLOODART analysis.

The structure of feeding mosquitoes was analyzed and multiple owners of blood were found. The most common owner of mosquitoes was a cow, then a pig, and people. Subsequently, researchers found that the trend toward mosquitoes that feed on humans increased between December 2017 and April 2018 from 27% to 44%. The results of the study indicate that the benefits of these mosquitoes in different nodes vary from one season to another, indicating the need for surveillance and eradication.

"QUEST has been an effective tool for the selection of Anopheline exotic mosquitoes. Vectors that are considered secondary, often encountered with DNA plasmodia in their abdomen, indicating the need to take these types into planned observations ", – say researchers in the study.

"Mosquitoes have shown multiple blood supply within the gonotrophic cycle, with mostly inhumane masters in the blood. Taken together, this complex nutritional behavior may increase the role of several Anofheline species in the transmission of malaria, possibly delayed by the tendency for zoological feeding, "they add.

The use of QUEST, a modified and open mesh trap, can be used in addition to existing mosquito control methods.

"Open trapping can pick up species that may miss other selection methods," said Dr. Riley Tedrov, a medical entomologist at the Medical Case School of the University of Case Western Reserve.

Tedrow also confirmed the importance of BLOODART, which combines an existing malaria test and a method for identifying mosquitoes. This technique allows scientists to evaluate hundreds of mosquitoes, their sources of food, the presence of parasites malaria and species.

What is Malaria?

Malaria is a tropical disease caused by a parasite. Malaria parasites that usually infect humans include Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale, and Plasmodium malariae. However, Plasmodium falciparum the type of malaria that can lead to severe infection, and if it is not treated, it can lead to death.

Plasmodium falciparum 3d Illustration - Credit: Sciencepics / Shutterstock

Plasmodium falciparum 3d Illustration – Credit: Sciencepics / Shutterstock

Infection is a life-threatening illness and parasites are transmitted to humans through bites of Anopheles infected mosquitoes. Although it can be life-threatening, it is curable and precautionary.

Only in 2017 was found 219 million cases of malaria in 87 countries. About 445,000 people died of malaria, most of them children in Africa. About 1,700 cases of malaria are diagnosed annually in the United States. Most of these cases are travelers or immigrants who return from countries with malaria such as South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa.

Symptoms and symptoms of malaria include influenza, mild pain, headache, chills and fatigue. Other symptoms, such as vomiting, nausea and diarrhea, may occur. Some complications may occur, for example, jaundice and anemia, due to the loss of red blood cells. In severe cases and if the disease is not treated promptly, it can lead to a trial, renal failure, mental confusion, coma and even death.

Source:

https://case.edu/medicine/about/newsroom/our-latest-news/mosquito-surveillance-uncovers-new-information-about-malaria-transmission-madagascar

Journal reference:

Anopheles Observations of mosquitoes in Madagascar reveals multiple blood vessel behaviors and Plasmodium infection, Riley E. Tedrow, Tovonahary Rakotomanga, Thiery Nepomichene, Rosalind E. Howes, Jocelyn Ratovonjato, Arsene C.
Published: July 5, 2019, Http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007176, https://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371/journal.pntd.0007176

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