Taking fish or vitamin D oil? Large studies give long-awaited solutions on who makes these popular nutrients and who do not benefit from them.
Fish oil taken by healthy people, on a dose found in many supplements, did not show any clear ability to reduce the risks of heart or cancer. The same thing for vitamin D.
But higher amounts of purposeful prescribed fish oil have heart-solved and heart-related deaths among people with high triglycerides, a type of blood fat, and other risks for heart disease . Doctors complained about the results and said they could suggest a new treatment option for hundreds of thousands of patients like these.
Up to 10 percent of US adults take fish oil. Even more vitamin D takes, although there are no major studies to support the number of health claims made for it.
"Those who want to promote it well to everything," but in this definitive test, vitamin D did not see "nothing big," said Dr James Stein, a heart expert in University of Wisconsin-Madison. He did not have any role in the studies or contacts with the companies involved.
The results were revealed on Saturday at the American Heart Society conference in Chicago and published by New England Journal of Medicine.
ABOUT FISH OIL
These oils, also known as omega-3 fatty acids, can be found in salmon, tuna and other fish. They reduce triglycerides and inflammation and may have other effects. There are different types, including EPA and DHA.
One study has proven 4 grams of Vascepa Amarin Corp., which is focused on EPA, in more than 8,000 patients with high triglycerides and a greater risk of heart problems for a variety of reasons. Each one was already taking a statin like Lipitor or Zocor to lower cholesterol. Vascepa and the rest were given half, mineral oil capsules as a comparison.
After five years, around 17 per cent of those on Vascepa had suffered one of these problems _ heart attacks, stroke, heart-related or cardiac-related deaths clogging they need medical care _ against 22 percent of the others.
That worked to a 25 per cent reduction at risk. They looked individually, heart attacks, deaths and stroke that are related to the heart, all lower with Vascepa. Only 21 people would have to take Vascepa for five years to stop one of the main problems studied _ favorable disputes, says Stein.
Side effects can be of concern: Vascepa had more people with hospitals for irregular heart drinks _ 3 per cent against 2 percent of the comparison group. Doctors say that's sorry because other research suggests that fish oil reduces that risk.
The concern with the heart rhythm problem is that it can raise the risk of having a stroke, but there was less stroke among those on Vascepa, the study leader, Dr. Deepak Bhatt, Brigham and Boston Women's Hospital.
Vascepa costs about $ 280 a month; many insurers cover it. Amarin sponsored the study and some study leaders work or consult for the company.
The other study proved a lower daily dose of ug of a different type of fish oil _combo EPA / DHA sold as Lovaza or Omacor and in a generic form _ in 26,000 people without problems with previous cancer or cancer.
After about five years, combined measurement rates of heart attacks, stroke and other problems were similar to fish oil and comparison group users. Cancer and mortality rates were similar.
There were fewer heart attacks in the fish-145 group against 200 in the comparison group. The study leader, Dr. JoAnn Manson in Brigham and Women, of the name "significant benefit", but several independent experts disagreed because of the way in which the study was established to track this and some other results.
"These findings are speculative and would need to be confirmed in a separate trial," said Dr. Steven Nissen, Cleveland Clinic.
The two studies share a problem: the oils used for the comparison groups, which may have been true places. The Vascepa study uses mineral oil, which is interstituted with statin drugs, rises cholesterol, and may have made the relative price worse and Vascepa looked better than the truth.
The study used other olive oil, which could have helped the comparator better, possibly masking any other benefits of fish oil.
The leaders of both studies say that the relative oil has no impact enough to change the main results, and independent experts have been agreed. But Nissen, who leads another fish oil study, uses corn oil as a comparison.
AND VITAMIN & SUNSHINE & # 39;
The Manson study has also experienced vitamin D, which the skin makes of exposure to the sun. It is hard to get enough foods such as milk, eggs and oily fish, although many foods are now being enriched with it. Some studies have found that people with lower levels of D are more likely to develop cancer, but it is not known if supplements are changing that risk.
Participants took a study of 2,000 international units from D-3 (the most active type of vitamin D, also known as cholecalciferol) or fake vitamin pill for five years.
Vitamin D did not affect the contraction of heart attack or stroke or the development of cancer. After banning the first two years of use, researchers saw fewer cancer deaths among those on the vitamin _ 112 against 149 in the placebo group.
"Cancer can take years to develop" so a difference may not appear immediately, says Manson. "This looks promising" and people will be studying longer to see if the trend is still up, he says.
Many other experts said that these numbers suggest the potential benefit that needs more study.
"You need to interpret these positive results with a warning," Dr. Clifford Rosen of the Research Institute of the Maine Medical Center and Dr. John Keaney Jr of the University of Massachusetts in a commentary in the medical journal.